The effect of alcohol on the body

The harm of alcohol on the human body is great. All organs and systems of the human body are affected. The negative impact does not spare the younger generation, women and men. It is worth understanding: is alcohol harmful to humans; what impact it has on each life support system; how harmful alcohol is to the body.

the effect of alcohol on the body

Alcoholism and its consequences

The effect of alcohol and its effect on the body has been well studied. Absolutely all human organs and systems come under the impact that is part of ethanol: organs of the digestive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory system, musculoskeletal system, visual organs, etc. Alcohol causesmost damage to the liver, heart and brain (memory training).

The effect of alcohol on the body is manifested as follows:

  • adversely affects the cells of the organs;
  • promotes mutation and the formation of oncology;
  • when used during pregnancy, may cause irreversible effects on the fetus;
  • is a drug;
  • disrupts normal metabolism;
  • reduces immunity.

Effect on the liver

The effect of alcohol on the liver is related to its main function - cleansing the body of toxins and harmful substances. Prolonged alcohol consumption leads to liver damage from ethanol and disruption of its work. When the liver is unable to cope with its filtering function, all toxic substances enter the bloodstream to other organs.

The effect of alcohol on the liver is manifested by the appearance of diseases:

  1. Acute alcoholic hepatitis. Symptoms: depression, deterioration of general well-being, decreased or lost appetite, fever, jaundice, blurred consciousness. This disease is treatable provided that the use of ethanol-containing products is stopped and the treatment is timely and correct.
  2. Cirrhosis of the liver occurs with symptoms of digestive disorders, abdominal pain, weight loss, weakness. It may develop asymptomatically. Cirrhosis is characterized by the growth of connective tissue that begins to destroy liver cells. The liver slowly stops functioning. In the later stages, cirrhosis of the liver may be accompanied by increased pressure in the vessels of the liver, encephalopathy and oncology.
  3. fatty hepatosis. It occurs in the absence of symptoms, the presence of which is determined using a biochemical blood test. Hepatosis is not treated with drugs, the main way to stop drinking alcohol.

The effect of alcohol on the brain

Many people drink alcohol after a hard day's work, on a holiday or just a day off. However, it is worth noting that not everyone has a sense of proportion. And sooner or later such a harmless hobby becomes a bad habit. And for whatalcohol is harmfulI have known and written for a long time. To date, there are many discussions aboutalcohol is the cause of many diseases. That it destroys liver cells and is unable to perform its functions. That it also damages the functioning of the brain. As a result, a person's memory and brain activity deteriorate. This is because when drinking an alcoholic beverage, in other words, alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream and travels with the bloodstream to the brain, where the process of its active destruction takes place.

The human brain is made up of 15 billion neurons, that is, nerve cells that die when they interact with alcohol. That is, with each time and with each new sip of alcohol, the number of dead nerve cells in the skull becomes more and more.

how alcohol affects the brain

And how is everything going? Once in the body, ethanol is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported through the organs. Excessive consumption affects the hypothalamus and reduces the production of vasopressin, which leads to dehydration. Ethanol in the blood begins to act on red blood cells, splitting their membranes. These two processes cause red blood cells to clump together to form blood clots. Blood clots gradually increase in size and block the patency of blood vessels - oxygen starvation of the brain occurs and brain cells die. Lack of oxygen leads to acidification and tissue hypoxia gradually occurs.

When doctors opened the brains of people who had died of alcohol poisoning or abused alcohol in their lifetime, they found that the man's brain had been completely destroyed. Scientists then came to the conclusion that alcohol is the most powerful drug that deprives a person of reason. As is already known and scientifically proven, alcohol kills brain cells. However, it is worth bearing in mind the fact that it affects everyone in different ways. Because in some people, the first thing that is subject to the destructive effects of alcohol is the back of the brain. In this case, they are strongly shaken. And in the second case, the moral center itself is subject to destruction. The latter case is considered the most dangerous condition, as alcohol kills the brain cells that control behavior. As practice has shown, a person in this state is able to destroy not only his own but also another's life. However, there is a third case in which a person's memory is destroyed. That is, in the morning one simply does not remember what happened yesterday, where he was and what he did.

Scientists have found that one glass of alcohol kills approximately 1000-2000 cells. Which in turn in the cerebral cortex begin to rot and decompose. In this case, the person experiences a severe headache, which is popularly called a hangover. As these cells poison the brain, protective processes begin to work in the human body. Which in turn contributes to the pumping of large amounts of fluid through the skull. This fluid, along with dead cells, then leaves the human body through the urethra. Alcohol is harmful to humans in all its forms and in all doses. It disrupts the work of all metabolic processes in the human body and affects its genetic code.

The described processes lead to damage to the parts of the brain responsible for the vestibular apparatus, human behavior, as well as memory and attention. With regular alcohol abuse there is a change in mental and intellectual processes - degeneration.

Influence on the psyche and nervous system

The effect of alcohol on the functioning of the central nervous system is as follows:

  1. Causes insomnia and nightmares. Night terrors can be excruciating, and it is not uncommon for alcoholics to be afraid of sleep. Taking sleeping pills or antidepressants only worsens the situation or leads to severe side effects.
  2. Disrupts thought processes, adversely affects memory. First, memorization takes place in fragments, then ethanol destroys neural connections, and gradually one ceases to remember the past and is unable to remember anything new.
  3. The consequences of drinking alcohol are manifested in the weakening of the intellect: a person stops thinking logically, emotions, feelings, perceptions disappear.
  4. Polyneuritis is a neurological complication. Manifested in inflammation of the nerves of the arms and legs. Symptoms: numbness, burning and weakness in the limbs.

Mental effects of alcoholism:

  1. Psychosis - ethanol causes inhibition of metabolic processes and oxygen starvation. There is a blurring of the mind, phobias, a person gradually isolates himself and begins to live in a self-created world.
  2. Delirium tremens. Manifested by sleep disorders, convulsions, depression, sudden changes in feelings of fear and joy, auditory and visual hallucinations.
  3. Alcoholic encephalopathy develops in the third stage of alcoholism. It is characterized by symptoms of delirium tremens, which is accompanied by weakness, loss of appetite, tremors, blurred consciousness, coma. High chance of death.
  4. Alcohol paralysis - encephalopathy in the chronic stage. Loss of reality, neuritis of the limbs.
  5. The influence of alcohol on the human psyche in the later stages of alcoholism leads to alcoholic epilepsy and alcohol degradation.

Effect on the cardiovascular system

The effects of excessive alcohol consumption on the cardiovascular system:

  1. Impaired vascular tone and flexibility of the bloodstream due to oxygen starvation and thrombosis.
  2. myocardial dystrophy. The pathology is caused by a violation of interstitial metabolism.
  3. Myocardial hypertrophy and obesity of the heart.
  4. The formation and accumulation of blood clots through the aggregation of red blood cells leads to the death of heart cells, which leads to heart attacks.
  5. Clogging of blood vessels leads to the appearance of blood streaks on the skin of the face.

Influence on the organs of the urinary system

Ethanol, which is part of alcoholic beverages, leads to a change in the sensitivity of the renal pelvis, which leads to a decrease in defense mechanisms. Increases the likelihood of inflammatory processes in the kidneys, urethra and bladder - pyelonephritis, nephritis, glomerulonephritis, urethritis, cystitis.

Prolonged use of alcohol in the urine forms a protein precipitate. Minerals washed with ethanol precipitate and accumulate in the kidneys, forming stones - urolithiasis develops.

If the metabolism is disturbed under the influence of alcohol, the structure of the kidneys is damaged, harmful substances accumulate and toxins develop renal dystrophy. In the absence of treatment and further alcohol consumption, one of the listed diseases develops renal failure.

Effects on the digestive system

Alcohol, getting into the oral cavity, disrupts the work of the salivary glands in the oral cavity and causes the viscosity of saliva, which reduces its protective ability. Ethanol begins to destroy the walls of the esophagus. Later, in chronic alcoholics, swallowing is impaired.

Gradually there is a deterioration of secretory function, in violation of which the pancreas is attacked. Alcoholic gastritis develops, which gradually turns into pancreatitis.

Alcohol also contributes to the production of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid, which corrode the walls of the digestive tract and cause ulcers, which over time can cause gastrointestinal oncology. In addition, alcohol clogs capillaries and thus disrupts the absorption of vitamins, which is detrimental to the human body.

The spleen cleanses the body of dead blood cells. Alcohol poisoning of the body impairs the work of the spleen and the ability to cleanse the body. Disorders of the spleen are also caused by the effects of alcohol on the liver, pancreas and circulatory system and disruption of their work.

As a result of alcohol abuse, blood flow to the spleen is disrupted, leading to tissue infarction and suppuration of the spleen capsule - spleen abscess.

Effects on immunity

The effect of alcohol on the defense mechanisms of the human body:

  1. Suppresses innate and acquired immunity.
  2. Decreased immunity ceases to produce enough white blood cells, the ability to resist disease is impaired.
  3. Disrupts the synthesis of cytokines, the excess of which leads to tissue destruction, lack of common diseases.
  4. Inhibits the work of T cells, which increases the risk of oncology.
  5. Alcohol reduces immunity and increases the risk of pneumonia, tuberculosis and HIV.

Impact on the musculoskeletal system

Ethanol is known to dehydrate the body. Water is essential for the functioning of cells. Lack of fluids leads to metabolic disorders. As a result, breakdown products and harmful compounds accumulate in muscle tissue, causing discomfort. Alcoholism leads to disruption of the endocrine system - suppresses the production of testosterone and glycogen. Their deficiency leads to the breakdown of muscle tissue.

The effect of alcohol on the joints

  1. Alcoholism develops osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis - thinning of cartilage tissue, with regular abuse, its disappearance. The protective mechanism against friction disappears, the joints begin to ache.
  2. Joint pain after alcohol can cause pinching of the pineal glands and impaired blood flow, resulting in ischemia of the bone tissue.
  3. Aseptic necrosis - death of bone tissue
  4. Gout is an inflammation of the joints.
  5. After alcohol, joints and knees ache due to fluid retention in the tissues and increased intra-articular fluid pressure.

Influence on appearance

How alcohol affects appearance:

  1. Alcoholic beverages are high in calories, combined with a high-calorie breakfast and impaired metabolism, leading to obesity and cellulite.
  2. The effect of alcohol on the skin: dehydration leads to aging and wrinkling of the skin.
  3. Ethanol washes away vitamins, minerals and nutrients, disrupts blood flow - the face is covered with acne and capillaries.
  4. The body is covered with papules and scales of non-infectious nature - psoriasis develops.
  5. Vinegar aldehyde dilates blood vessels and as a result the skin of the face becomes brown.
  6. Skin cancer is possible in the later stages of alcoholism.

Effects on the endocrine system

Alcohol inhibits the work of the endocrine system, which includes the endocrine glands:

  1. Alcohol and thyroid: hormonal activity is impaired, which adversely affects the ability to reproduce. In women suffering from alcoholism, there are often cases of infertility, miscarriages, premature births.
  2. Alcohol and pancreas: ethanol inhibits the pancreas and pancreatitis develops against a background of reduced immunity.
  3. Alcohol reduces insulin production - diabetes develops. Cases of latent disease are not uncommon.
  4. The adrenal glands are responsible for carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, the production of sex hormones and the functioning of the cardiovascular system. When the adrenal glands are disturbed, the whole body suffers, the biggest blow falls on the reproductive function.
  5. Alcoholism disrupts the connection between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. The production of tropical hormones decreases and the synthesis of hormones of the opposite sex increases - the appearance gradually begins to change.

Effects on the lungs

Alcohol is excreted from the body not only through the digestive and excretory systems. The lungs are actively involved in this process. The organs of the respiratory system are not adapted to such a load, so the lung tissue gradually hardens and expands. Connective tissue fibrosis occurs. Mucus and sputum begin to accumulate in the lungs. This causes pneumonia and other diseases of the lower respiratory system.

Alcohol also leads to dehydration of the mucous membranes and disrupts the defense mechanisms, a person is more often exposed to viral and infectious diseases. Alcoholics often suffer from tuberculosis. Clogging of blood vessels leads to lack of oxygen.

Effects on vision

With regular use of alcohol it is not uncommon for the eyes to hurt - this is due to:

  1. The formation of blood clots in the vessels of the optic nerve and oculomotor muscles disrupts the blood supply to the entire visual system.
  2. Decreased oxygen in the blood, which leads to darkening of the eyes, can lead to blindness.
  3. Increased intraocular pressure, which causes rupture of blood vessels and hemorrhage.
  4. Vision does not adapt well to changing conditions and lighting. Objects in the field of view are moving away and blurring. Alcohol-induced disorders in the ocular center of the brain cause double vision.
  5. In the last stage, under the influence of alcohol, the optic nerves atrophy.

Alcohol has an adverse effect on the whole body without exception. There is a violation of the digestive system, excretory, cardiovascular, endocrine and other systems of the body. The detrimental effect on the functioning of the organs leads to the development of serious diseases, some of which are not treatable.